Formula of Concord
   The Formula of Concord was a doctrinal confession issued by the second generation of Lutherans after the deaths of Martin Luther in 1546 and Philip Melancthon in 1560. The formula deals with theological questions that arose after the founders were no longer present.
   in the 1560s, two parties became evident among the Lutheran leadership. one generally accepted Melancthon's attempts to find common ground with other Christians on such issues as the Lord's Supper; the other party was dismissive of such efforts, and in particular condemned the Leipzig Interim, which Melancthon had accepted, an attempted compromise with Roman Catholics that had been imposed by Emperor Charles V.
   A new generation of scholars, including James Andreae, Martin Chemnitz, David Chytraeus, and Nikolaus selnecker, after years of dialogue, completed the formula in 1577, and won the support of 86 German states, including Saxony, Brandenberg, and the Palatinate. The 12 articles of the formula focused on a number of newer issues such as original sin (in which total depravity is affirmed); the necessity of preaching the law in the Christian community, even though it has no role in individual salvation; the Lord's Supper (maintaining
   Lutheran emphasis on the real presence); and the denunciation of some heretical positions including Anabaptism, Schwenckfeldianism, and Neo-Arianism.
   The formula was published along with a set of other Lutheran confessional documents and ancient creeds in the Book of Concord (1580). The Book of Concord includes the Apostles' Creed, Athanasian Creed, Nicene Creed, Augsburg Confession of Faith, Apology of the Augsburg Confession, Schmalkald Articles, and Luther's Larger and Smaller Catechisms. The Book of Concord has served as the sourcebook for Lutheran teachings for generations.
   Further reading:
   ■ Friedrich Bente, Historical Introductions to the Book of Concord (St. Louis: Concordia, 1921, 1965)
   ■ The Book of Concord (Fortress Press: Philadelphia, 1959)
   ■ Eric Gritsch and Robert Jenson, Lutheranism: The Theological Movement and its Confessional Writings (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1976)
   ■ Robert Kolb, Andreae and the Formula of Concord (St. Louis: Concordia, 1977)
   ■ Edmund Schlink, Theology of the Lutheran Confessions. (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1961)
   ■ Louis W. Spitz and Wenzel Lohff, eds., Discord, Dialogue, and Concord: Studies in the Lutheran Reformation's Formula of Concord (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1977).

Encyclopedia of Protestantism. . 2005.

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