- Helvetic Confessions
- (Reformed)The two Helvetic Confessions were a 16th-century attempt to define the common beliefs of the various Swiss Reformed churches. The second confession was eventually adopted by other Reformed churches throughout Europe, and remains part of the Reformed heritage even today.The early Reformed churches in Switzerland had no common confession of faith. The first attempt at such a doctrinal statement, the Basel Confession of 1534, was accepted only in Basel and Muhlausen. In 1536, Heinrich Bullinger, Oswald Myconius, Simon Grynaeus, Leo Jud, and others gathered in Basel to revise the earlier confession. Their First Helvetic Confession retained the perspective of Zurich reform leader Ulrich Zwingli. This attempt won wider acceptance, but its attempts to reconcile Lutheran and Zwinglian positions on the Eucharist satisfied neither camp, and the 27 articles were rejected by Lutherans and other Protestants at the important centers of Strasbourg and Constance.In 1549, John Calvin, William Farel, and Bullinger worked out the Zurich Consensus, which satisfied all the Reformed churches in German- and French-speaking Switzerland. In 1561, Bullinger quietly composed a personal statement of faith based on the First Helvetic Confession of 1536, as an attachment to his will. It took on a public role when Bullinger sent it to Frederick III, the elector of the Palatinate, to use in his defense of the Heidelberg Cathechism in 1566. Frederick was exonerated, and Bullinger's confession was published. As the Second Helvetic Confession, it was officially adopted by the Protestant Swiss cantons in 1566.The lengthy document covers the authority of the Bible, the Triune God, the salvation offered in Christ, creation, the fall, human redemption, and the church. It carefully distinguishes the Protestant from the Catholic position, and the Reformed position from that of the Anabaptists. It incorporated the Zurich Consensus on the sacraments, stating, "Sacraments are mystical symbols, or holy rites, or sacred actions, instituted by God himself consisting of his Word, of signs, and of things signified."The confession was subsequently adopted by the Reformed churches in France (1571), Hungary (1567), and Poland (1571). In 1566, though already having a confession of its own, the Church of Scotland (Presbyterian) gave the Helvetic Confession its approval; it was informally received in Holland and England. It remains the official doctrinal statement of the Reformed Churches of Eastern Europe (and their foreign affiliates). In 1967, it was added to the Book of Confessions of the United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., which brought it into the 1983 merger that produced the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.).See also creeds/confessions of faith.Further reading:■ Joel R. Beeke and Sinclair B. Ferguson, eds., Reformed Confessions Harmonized: With an Annotated Bibliography of Reformed Doctrinal Works (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Book House, 1999)■ A. C. Cochrane, Reformed Confessions of the 16th Century (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1985)■ Jack Rogers, Presbyterian Creeds: A Guide to the Book of Confessions (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1985)■ J. Gordon Melton, The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Religious Creeds, 2 vols. (Detroit: Gale Research, 1988, 1994).
Encyclopedia of Protestantism. Gordon Melton. 2005.
Look at other dictionaries:
Helvetic Confessions — Helvetic Confessions, the name of two documents expressing the common belief of the Reformed churches of Switzerland. The First Helvetic Confession (Latin: Confessio Helvetica prior), known also as the Second Confession of Basel, was drawn up at… … Wikipedia
Helvetic Confessions — plural noun Two confessions of faith drawn up by the Swiss theologians in 1536 and 1566 • • • Main Entry: ↑Helvetic … Useful english dictionary
Helvetic Confessions — Швейцарские исповедания … Вестминстерский словарь теологических терминов
Helvetic Confession — ▪ Protestant religion either of two confessions of faith officially adopted by the Reformed Church in Switzerland. The First Helvetic Confession (also called the Second Confession of Basel) was composed in 1536 by Heinrich Bullinger… … Universalium
Confessions, Book of — ▪ religious work compilation of creeds and confessions that was prepared by a committee of the United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. and was adopted by that church in 1967. It includes the Nicene Creed, the Apostles Creed, the Scots… … Universalium
creeds/confessions of faith — Creeds (derived from the Latin credere, to believe) are summary statements of Christian beliefs, whether overall affirmations of Christianity or clarifications on a particular issue or set of issues. Several creeds became authoritative in the… … Encyclopedia of Protestantism
Book of Confessions — The Book of Confessions is the book of doctrinal statements of the Presbyterian Church (USA) (PCUSA) and is designated Part 1 of the PCUSA Constitution, Part 2 being the Book of Order. It consists of several ecumenical, Reformed, and modern… … Wikipedia
Reformed Christian confessions of faith — are documents of the faith of various Reformed churches. The Reformed churches express their consensus of faith in various creeds. A few creeds are shared by many denominations, which have made their choices from among the various creeds for… … Wikipedia
John Calvin's views on Mary — Portrait of John Calvin, 1854 … Wikipedia
Freedom of religion in Austria — The Constitution provides for freedom of religion, and the Government generally respected this right in practice for all but a minority of religious groups. Government policy continued to contribute to the free practice of religion for all but… … Wikipedia