Marian exiles
   The term Marian exiles refers to about 800 Protestants who fled England during the reign of Mary I (1553-58). Mary's attempt to reimpose Roman Catholicism on the Church of England and the country included the arrest and execution of Protestant leaders. The majority of the exiles, mostly lay believers, settled in Germany at first, but they eventually gravitated to Holland and Switzerland (several hundred in Geneva alone). There they absorbed the ideas of John Calvin, whose Institutes of the Christian Religion had become the important statement of Reformed Church theology in both countries.
   Among the more important of the exiles was John Knox. After leaving Scotland, Knox settled in Frankfurt, Germany, as the chaplain to a group of British expatriates. When the community was taken over by Anglicans, he moved on to Geneva. While there, he wrote the "Brief Exhortation to England," an exposition in support of Calvin's perspective. With Elizabeth I firmly on the throne in 1559, he returned to Scotland to lead a Geneva-style Reformation. The Church of Scotland was transformed into a Presbyterian church.
   Peter Martyr Vermigli (1500-62) was another of the exiles. An italian previously exiled from his homeland and sought by the inquisition, vermigli had come to England at the request of Thomas Cranmer to teach at Oxford. After fleeing once again, Vermigli moved first to Strasbourg and then to Zurich. in 1561, he accompanied Theodore de Beza to the Colloquy of Poissey, one of several peaceful attempts to reconcile Protestant-Catholic differences in France.
   England could not ignore the returning exiles. Elizabeth, however, placed national unity as her most important goal. Her VIA MEDIA was an attempt to reconcile Reformed and Catholic practices so as to appeal to the broadest segments of the public. Her new Book of Common Prayer was an edited version of an earlier Protestant edition, but it dropped references that might seem to favor either Catholics or Protestants.
   The great majority of Elizabeth's subjects accepted the via media, which allowed much scope for interpretation, but many of the Marian exiles would accept nothing less than the pure Calvinist ideal. These people founded the British Presbyterian Church and became the bedrock of Puritanism, a broad movement that called for further purification of the Church of England. Their movement would enjoy its greatest success in the next century.
   Further reading:
   ■ K. R. Bartlett, "The Role of the Marian Exiles," in P. W. Hassler, ed., The House of Commons, 1558-1603 (London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1981)
   ■ Dan G. Danner, Pilgrimage to Puritanism: History and Theology of the Marian Exiles (London: Peter Lang, 1999)
   ■ C. H. Garrett, The Marian Exiles, 1553-1558 (Cambridge: Cambridge university Press, 1938).

Encyclopedia of Protestantism. . 2005.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Marian exiles — The Marian Exiles were English Calvinist Protestants who fled to the continent during the reign of Queen Mary I. Contents 1 Exile communities 2 Strasbourg 3 Frankfurt …   Wikipedia

  • Marian Persecutions — Plaque in Maidstone, Kent, commemorating those burned nearby. The Marian Persecutions were carried out against religious reformers, Protestants, and other dissenters for their heretical beliefs during the reign of Mary I of England. The excesses… …   Wikipedia

  • Marian Zyndram-Kościałkowski — Prime Minister of Poland In office 13 October 1935 – 15 May 1936 Preceded by Walery Sławek …   Wikipedia

  • Marian Januszajtis-Żegota — Marian Józef Januszajtis Żegota (3 April 1889, Częstochowa 24 March 1973, Royal Tunbridge Wells) was a Polish military commander and politician. One of the founders of Polish paramilitary pro independence organizations in Austrian partition, and… …   Wikipedia

  • Vestments controversy — The vestments controversy arose in the English Reformation, ostensibly concerning vestments, but more fundamentally concerned with English Protestant identity, doctrine, and various church practices. First initiated by John Hooper s rejection of… …   Wikipedia

  • Robert Crowley (printer) — Robert Crowley also Robertus Croleus, Roberto Croleo, Robart Crowleye, Robarte Crole, and Crule (c. 1517 ndash; June 18 1588), was a stationer, poet, polemicist and Protestant clergyman who was among the Marian exiles at Frankfurt. Crowley… …   Wikipedia

  • Christopher Goodman — BD (1520–1603) was an English reforming clergyman and writer. He was a Marian exile, who left England to escape persecution during the counter reformation in the reign of Queen Mary I of England. He was the author of a work on limits to obedience …   Wikipedia

  • History of the Puritans — The history of the Puritans can be traced back to the Vestments Controversy in the reign of Edward VI ending in a decline in the mid 1700s. Background, to 1559 The English Reformation, begun his reign in the reign of Henry VIII of England, was… …   Wikipedia

  • William Whittingham — For the Episcopal bishop in America, see William Whittingham (bishop). William Whittingham (c. 1524 1579) was an English Biblical scholar and religious reformer. Educated at Brasenose College, Oxford, he became a zealous Protestant; as such he… …   Wikipedia

  • Stranger churches — The Dutch Stranger Church in London. Strangers church was a term (similar in meaning to the French étranger) used by English speaking people for independent Protestant churches established in foreign lands or by foreigners in England during the… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”